By D. J. Galas, T. B. L. Kirkwood, R. F. Rosenberger (auth.), T. B. L. Kirkwood, R. F. Rosenberger, D. J. Galas (eds.)
Molecular biology proceeds at unremitting speed to spread new secrets and techniques of the residing international. Biology, lengthy considered as an inexact better half to physics and chemistry, has gone through transformation. Now, chemical and actual ideas are instruments in figuring out hugely complicated biomolecular methods, whose starting place lies in a historical past of probability, constraint and usual choice. The accuracy of those procedures, usually remarkably excessive, is important to their self perpetuation, either separately and jointly, as parts of the organism as a complete. during this publication are awarded 13 chapters which care for quite a few points of the accuracy challenge. topics lined contain: the specificity of enzymes; the constancy of synthesis of proteins; the replication and service of DNA: normal schemes for the enhancement of organic accuracy; choice for an optimum stability among the prices and advantages of accuracy; and the potential relevance of molecular blunders to the method of aging. The viewpoints are designated, but complementary, and the e-book as a complete bargains to researchers and scholars the 1st accomplished account of this growing to be field.
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Extra resources for Accuracy in Molecular Processes: Its Control and Relevance to Living System
146, 55-76. Genetic information transfer Neidhardt, F. , van Bogelen, R. A. and Vaughn, V. (1984) The genetics and regulation of heat-shock proteins. Ann. Rev. , 18, 295-329. Ninio, J. (1975) Kinetic amplification of enzyme discrimination. Biochimie, 57, 587595. Orgel, L. E. (1963) The maintenance of the accuracy of protein synthesis and its relevance to ageing. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 49, 517-52l. Orgel, L. E. (1970) The maintenance of the accuracy of protein synthesis and its relevance to ageing: A correction.
Although ribosomes may have evolved to damp the contribution to error feedback from error-prone ribosomes, the possibility of an amplification of errors through these or other components of the translation process cannot be ruled out. The effect of error coupling would be to reduce greatly the output of abnormal ribosomes, which is similar (though not identical) to reducing the parameter R in the adaptor model. Error coupling could also reduce the error level at which error catastrophe occurs, since a small increase in the frequency of errors would result in a substantial increase in the fraction of error-containing ribosomes, which in turn would greatly reduce the overall rate of effective protein synthesis, resulting in slower growth and perhaps even death of the cell.
Conversely, if ex < 1, the number of errors feeding back through the cycle is always less than were there before, and the error level stabilizes to a fixed value E/(l- ex). Through its feedback parameter ex the model thus predicts an important distinction between limited, convergent error feedback and divergent error amplification. A later model of the dynamics of error propagation carried the analysis of translational stability further (Hoffmann, 1974; Kirkwood and Holliday, 1975). In this model, each generation of the translation apparatus was assumed to consist of a set of polypeptide 'adaptors', each of which carried out the translation of a given codon into the corresponding amino acid in the nascent polypeptide.
Accuracy in Molecular Processes: Its Control and Relevance to Living System by D. J. Galas, T. B. L. Kirkwood, R. F. Rosenberger (auth.), T. B. L. Kirkwood, R. F. Rosenberger, D. J. Galas (eds.)